Track 1: Osteoporosis and geriatrics
Osteoporosis is a decrease in the density of bone, decreasing its strength and leading to fragile bones. Most cases occur in postmenopausal women and older men. Gonadal insufficiency is a very important factor in both men and women. Symptoms are fractures of the spine, wrist or hip, Backache, a gradual loss of height and an accompanying stooped posture. Hormonal factors considerably determine the pace of bone resorption; lack of estrogen as a result of menopause will increase bone resorption, also as decreasing the deposition of new bone that takes place in weight-bearing bones.
Track 2: Osteoporosis Endocrinology
Hormonal factors considerably determine the pace of bone resorption; lack of oestrogen as a result of menopause will increase bone resorption, also as decreasing the deposition of new bone. Endocrinology is an important aspect of osteoporosis. Calcium metabolism additionally plays a major role in bone turnover, and deficiency of calcium and vitamin d ends up in impaired bone deposition; additionally, the parathyroid glands react to low calcium levels by secreting parathyroid hormone (parathormone, PTH), that will increase bone resorption to make sure ample calcium in the blood.
Track 3: Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder which mainly affects joints. The typical symptoms are warm, swollen, and painful joints. Pain and stiffness progresses and becomes worse when treated. The wrist and hands are most commonly affected. The disease may also affect other parts of the body. This may result in complications like low red blood cell count, inflammation around the lungs, and inflammation around the heart. Fever and low energy are also the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Track 4: Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease caused due to breakdown of joint cartilage and the underlying bone. Causes are abnormal joint or limb development, previous joint injury, and genetic factors. Risk is high in overweight people, those who have one leg of a different length, and have jobs that lead to high levels of joint stress. The symptoms include pain in the affected area, resulting in decreased ability to move and stiffness, occasional effusion, tenderness, crepitus. Commonly affected areas are hands, spine, and knees.
Track 5: Other Musculoskeletal Disorders
Musculoskeletal disorders are the ones that affect muscles, bones and related nerves. Some of the common disorders are epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, back pain, tendinitis, tension neck syndrome, fibromyalgia etc. The severity of each disorder varies in terms of pain and disability. Most of these conditions may be caused due to mechanical stress and common wear and tear. Some disorders maybe of genetic origin. These disorders drastically affect the everyday life due to decrease in motion, fatigue and pain.
Track 6: Consequences of Musculoskeletal disorders
The major consequences of musculoskeletal disorders are decreased movement and disability which leads to inability to work and perform other physical activities. This may also lead to psychological stress on the affected patients leading to depression. Musculoskeletal disorders are a huge burden on individuals, social care systems and health systems, with indirect costs being very high. Increased risk of mortality is seen in severe osteoporosis and arthritis. Economic burden on patients affected with musculoskeletal disorders progresses with time and treatment.
Track 7: Advancements in Diagnostic Tools
Based on the symptoms and severity diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorder can be done, however, in certain cases it is difficult to differentiate. The most common tool for diagnosis of most of the musculoskeletal disorders is the x-ray as in case of osteoarthritis. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (DXA) can be used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Other diagnosis tools include MRI, Ultrasound and certain tests like blood tests and urine tests. Rheumatoid arthritis is diagnosed by an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, which may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the body. Other common blood tests look for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. Chemical biomarkers are very useful tools in detecting bone degradation.
Track 8: Novel Pharmacological Treatments
Treatment of osteoporosis is achieved by using SERMS most commonly. Strontium ranelete and hormonal replacement therapy in post-menopausal women shows effective treatment of osteoporosis. Treatment for pain in osteoarthritis is done using acetaminophen primarily. NSAIDS and opioids may also be used for treatment of osteoarthritis and most of the musculoskeletal disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs can slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis which includes methotrexate, leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine.
Track 9: Orthopedic Surgeries
Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are the common surgical procedures in case of spinal fractures in osteoporosis. Vesselplasty is a surgical alternative in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures which is minimally invasive. Arthroscopy is performed in case of arthritis to examine and repair a joint. An osteotomy may relieve symptoms of osteoarthritis, but knee replacement surgery eventually is needed in case of severe osteoarthritis. Other surgical procedures for arthritis include Synovectomy, Tendon repair, and Joint fusion.
Track 10: Musculoskeletal regenerative medicine
Regenerative medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the use of therapeutic stem cells, tissue engineering for regenerating human cells and production of artificial organs. Several of the regenerative medicine products currently available in the market are for musculoskeletal disorders. Mesenchymal precursor cell (MPC), Mesenchymal Stem cells, autologous engineered neocartilage is some of the commonly used techniques. Intense research is in progress globally for the different possibilities of regenerative medicine in musculoskeletal regeneration
Track 11: Alternative Treatments
Exercise is a critical part of strengthening bone mass and recommends eating plenty of calcium-rich foods, such as nonfat milk, low-fat yogurt, broccoli, cauliflower, salmon, tofu, and leafy green vegetables. Acupuncture and Tai Chi are also used for Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. While more scientific research is needed on the subject, some herbs and supplements are believed to reduce or potentially stop bone loss caused by osteoporosis. There are numerous benefits to using physiotherapy as a method for treating patients with osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal disorders.
Track 12: Nutrition and Prevention
Nutrition is the most important criteria for general health and prevention of diseases. Food rich in calcium and vitamin D like milk, yogurt, fish etc. prevent osteoporosis. Fish and other food with omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for joints. Consumption of required amount of water daily is necessary as water lubricates the joints. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables with various benefits is necessary for bone health. Fruits rich in Vitamin C and Vitamin A are good for joints. Vitamin C may slow the wear and tear on your joints by playing a key role in the formation of collagen, which is a key component of cartilage and bone. Antioxidants which help fight free radicals are necessary for general health.
Track 13: Supportive Approaches
An orthosis is an externally applied device which is used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system which are used in supportive treatment of osteoporosis. In patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip Moderate exercise is beneficial with respect to pain and function. Knee braces and prosthetics maybe uses for relieving the pain by decreasing the stress on joints. Supplements with necessary vitamins can be useful for supportive treatment in musculoskeletal disorders. Calcium and Vitamin D supplements are recommended in osteoporosis to improve bone density. Glucosamine and SAMe have research background for maintaining joints.